The brown planthopper (BPH) is one of the most serious insect pests of rice. In this study, we conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of the BPH resistance of ’B5’, a highly resistant line that derived its resistant genes from the wild rice Oryza officinalis. Insect resistance was evaluated using 250 F3 families from a cross between ’B5’ and ’Minghui 63’, based on which the resistance of each F2 plant was inferred. Two bulks were made by mixing, respectively, DNA samples from highly resistant plants and highly susceptible plants selected from the F2 population. The bulks were surveyed for restriction fragment length polymorphism using probes representing all 12 chromosomes at regular intervals. The survey revealed two genomic regions on chromosome 3 and chromosome 4 respectively that contained genes for BPH resistance. The existence of the two loci were further assessed by QTL (quantitative trait locus) analysis, which resolved these two loci to a 14.3-cM interval on chromosome 3 and a 0.4-cM interval on chromosome 4. Comparison of the chromosomal locations and reactions to BPH biotypes indicated that these two genes are different from at least nine of the ten previously identified BPH resistance genes. Both of the genes had large effects on BPH resistance and the two loci acted essentially independent of each other in determining t he resistance. These two genes may be a useful BPH resistance resource for rice breeding programs.