Reproductive barriers are important for the maintenance of species identity. We discovered a reproductive barrier via hybrid breakdown among the progeny of a cross between the japonica rice cultivar Koshihikari and the indica rice cultivar Habataki. Genetic analysis indicated that the hybrid breakdown is regulated by the interaction of two recessive genes: hbd2 in Habataki and hbd3 in Koshihikari. Linkage mapping showed that hbd2 is located near the 100 cM region of chromosome 2 in Habataki, whereas hbd3 is located near the 60 cM region of chromosome 11 in Koshihikari. Construction of nearly isogenic lines for hbd2 and Hbd3 (NIL-hbd2 and NIL-Hbd3), as well as a pyramiding line (NIL-hbd2 + Hbd3), confirmed that the hybrid breakdown is induced by the interaction of these two recessive genes. Our results indicate that these genes are novel for the induction of hybrid breakdown in rice.