Photoperiod and temperature are two important environmental factors that influence the heading-date of rice. Although the influence of the photoperiod on heading has been extensively reported in rice, the molecular mechanism for the temperature control of heading remains unknown. This study reports an early heading mutant derived from tissue culture lines of rice and investigates the heading-date of wild type and mutant in different photoperiod and temperature treatments. The linkage analysis showed that the mutant phenotype cosegregated with the Hd1 locus. Sequencing analysis found that the mutant contained two insertions and several single-base substitutions that caused a dramatic reduction in Hd1mRNA levels compared with wild type. The expression patterns of Hd1 and Hd3a were also analyzed in different photoperiod and temperature conditions, revealing that Hd1 mRNA levels displayed similar expression patterns for different photoperiod and temperature treatments, with high expression levels at night and reduced levels in the daytime. In addition, Hd1 displayed a slightly higher expression level under long-day and low temperature conditions. Hd3a mRNA was present at a very low level under low temperature conditions regardless of the day-length. This result suggests that suppression of Hd3a expression is a principle cause of late heading under low temperature and long-day conditions.